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As with the original trilogy, Lucas intended The Phantom Menace to illustrate several themes throughout the narrative. Duality is a frequent theme; Amidala is a queen who passes as a handmaiden, Palpatine plays on both sides of the war, among others. All three approached directors told Lucas that he should direct the film, as they each found the project "too daunting. Before Lucas had started writing, his producing partner Rick McCallum was preparing for the film.
McCallum stated that his experience with The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles led to many of his decisions on The Phantom Menace , such as long-term deals with actors and soundstages, the employment of recent graduates with no film experience, and the creation of sets and landscapes with digital technology. In April , McCallum started searching for artists in art, architecture and design schools, and in mid-year he began location scouting with production designer Gavin Bocquet.
Within three to four months of Lucas beginning the writing process, Chiang and his design team started a two-year process of reviewing thousands of designs for the film. With the exception of the Gungan city, which had an art nouveau -inspired visual, these locations would be given distinctive looks with some basis in the real world.
The concept drawings of Ralph McQuarrie for the original trilogy served as the basis for Mos Espa—which was also inspired by old Tunisian hotels and buildings and had touches such as a market place to differentiate it from A New Hope ' s Mos Eisley—and Coruscant, in particular a metropolis design that became the basis for the Senate. Chiang uses that orientation to base the droids on the Imperial soldiers, only in the same style of stylized and elongated features seen in tribal African art.
Terryl Whitlatch , who had a background on zoology and anatomy, was in charge of creature design. Many of the aliens are hybrids, combining features of real animals. At times, entire food chains were developed, even though only a small percentage of them would appear in the film.
Whitlatch also designed detailed skeletons for the major characters and facial muscles on Jar Jar Binks as a reference for ILM's animators. Each creature would reflect its environment; those on Naboo were more beautiful because the planet is "lush and more animal-friendly", Tatooine has rough-looking creatures "with weather-beaten leathery skin to protect them from the harsh desert elements", and Coruscant has bipedal, human-looking aliens.
The film made extensive use of the new technique of digital pre-visualization, using computers to essentially create 3-D animated storyboards. This was done for dozens of scenes in the film but was first and primarily used in the pod race sequence. Animatic supervisor David Dozoretz, also an ILM alum, worked on this sequence for nearly three years, and at one point had a 25 minute version of the race, although the film only included a 9-minute version.
Stunt coordinator Nick Gillard was recruited to create a new Jedi fighting style for the prequel trilogy. Gillard likened the lightsaber battles to a chess game "with every move being a check ". Because of their short-range weapons, Gillard thought that the Jedi would have had to develop a fighting style that merged every swordfighting style, such as kendo and other kenjutsu styles, with other swinging techniques, such as tennis swings and tree-chopping. While training Liam Neeson and Ewan McGregor, Gillard wrote a sequence that lasted around 60 seconds and intended to be around five or six sequences per fight.
The preference of hand-to-hand combat was intended to give a spiritual and intellectual role to the Jedi. Lucas decided to make elaborate costumes, because the film's society was more sophisticated than the one depicted in the original trilogy. Designer Trisha Biggar and her team created over 1, costumes that were inspired by various cultures. The Jedi costumes followed the tradition from the original film;  Obi-Wan's costume was inspired by the costume that was worn by Guinness.
Lucas said he and Biggar would look at the conceptual art to "translat[e] all of these designs into cloth and fabric and materials that would actually work and not look silly". Biggar also consulted Gillard to ensure that the costumes would accommodate action scenes, and consulted the creature department to find which fabrics "wouldn't wear too heavily" on the alien skins. A huge wardrobe department was set up at Leavesden Film Studios to create over costumes for the main actors and 5, for the background ones.
Nute Gunray 's Thai accent was chosen after Lucas and McCallum listened to various languages to decide how the Neimoidians would speak. After Samuel L. Jackson expressed interest in appearing in a Star Wars film, he was approached by casting director Robin Gurland to play Windu. Lucas and McCallum were so impressed with the test tape that they gave Park the role of Maul.
His voice was considered "too squeaky" and was dubbed over in post-production by Peter Serafinowicz. Joseph Fiennes auditioned for the role of Obi-Wan Kenobi and nearly landed the part until George Lucas's young daughter rejected him upon meeting him during the second level of auditioning. Silas Carson was cast as Nute Gunray because another actor was uncomfortable with the costumes used by the Trade Federation characters, which were hot, exerted a lot of pressure on the bearer, and took about 15 minutes to apply.
Hugh Quarshie considered the part of Panaka as "a good career move" and a production that would be fun to make. As she prepared the script for her directorial debut The Virgin Suicides , Coppola heard Lucas would make a new Star Wars film and asked him if she could accompany him during filming.
Lucas offered Coppola a role in the royal entourage, which she accepted because it "seemed like a good vantage point to watch without getting in the way". Filming began on June 26, , and ended on September 30 of that year, primarily taking place at Leavesden Film Studios in England. Leavesden was leased for a two and a half year period so the production company could leave the sets intact and return after principal photography had been completed.
The Tunisian desert was again used for the Tatooine scenes;  Mos Espa was built outside the city of Tozeur. On the night following the third day of shooting in Tozeur, an unexpected sandstorm destroyed many of the sets and props. The production was quickly rescheduled to allow for repairs and was able to leave Tunisia on the date originally planned.
Scenes with explosions were filmed on replica sets in Leavesden. A binder with the film's storyboards served as a reference for live-action filming, shots that would be filmed in front of a chroma key blue screen, and shots that would be composed using CGI.
The sets were often built with the parts that would be required on screen; often they were built only up to the heights of the actors. Chroma key was extensively used for digital set extensions, backgrounds, or scenes that required cinematographer David Tattersall to seek powerful lamps to light the sets and visual effects supervisor John Knoll to develop software that would remove the blue reflection from shiny floors.
Knoll, who remained on set through most of the production, worked closely with Tattersall to ensure that the shots were suitable to add effects later. The cameras were fitted with data capture models to provide technical data for the CGI artists. Some scenes, mostly of elements filmed by the special effects team, were shot on high definition, digital video tapes to test the performance of digital recordings, which Lucas and McCallum considered the next logical step because of the amount of digitizing—an expensive process compared to recording directly on digital media—for the compositing of computer-generated effects.
All future films would be shot using Sony CineAlta high-definition video cameras. The visual effects crew did not like the original results and crafted Fode and Beed as an entirely computer generated alien. Editing took two years; Paul Martin Smith started the process in England and focused on dialogue-heavy scenes. Ben Burtt —who was also the film's sound editor —was responsible for action sequences under Lucas' supervision. Non-linear editing systems played a large part in translating Lucas' vision; he constantly tweaked, revised, and reworked shots and scenes.
The final sound mix was added in March , and the following month, the film was completed after the delivery of the remaining visual effects shots. You can't write one of these movies without knowing how you're going to accomplish it. The film saw breakthrough in computer generated effects. About 1, of the shots in The Phantom Menace have visual effects.
The scene in which toxic gas is released on the Jedi is the only sequence with no digital alteration. Until the film's production, many special effects in the film industry were achieved using miniature models, matte paintings, and on-set visual effects—although other films had made extensive use of CGI. Knoll previewed 3, storyboards for the film; Lucas accompanied him to explain factors of the shots that would be practical and those that would be created through visual effects.
Knoll later said that on hearing the explanations of the storyboards, he did not know how to accomplish what he had seen. The result was a mixture of original techniques and the newest digital techniques to make it difficult for the viewer to guess which technique was being used. Knoll and his visual effects team wrote new computer software, including cloth simulators to allow a realistic depiction of the digital characters' clothing, to create certain shots.
Another goal was to create computer-generated characters that could act seamlessly with live-action actors. While filming scenes with CGI characters, Lucas would block the characters using their corresponding voice actors on-set. The voice actors were then removed and the live-action actors would perform the same scene alone. A CGI character would later be added into the shot to complete the conversation.
Lucas, who had previously confronted problems with the props used to depict R2-D2, allowed ILM and the production's British special effects department to create their own versions of the robot. Nine R2-D2 models were created; one was for actor Kenny Baker to be dropped into, seven were built by ILM and featured two wheelchair motors capable of moving pounds kg , enabling it to run and be mostly used in stage sets, and the British studio produced a pneumatic R2-D2 that could shift from two to three legs and was mostly used in Tunisia because its motor drive system allowed it to drive over sand.
Lucas originally planned to create many of the aliens with computer graphics, but those that would be more cost-effectively realized with masks and animatronics were created by Nick Dudman's creature effects team. Dudman's team was told where the creatures would be required six months before principal photography begun, and they rushed the production.
The Neimodian suits, which were originally intended as digital characters, were delivered one day before they would be required on set. Dudman traveled to Skywalker Ranch to see the original creatures that could be reused, and read the script for a breakdown of scenes with practical creatures, leaving only the more outlandish designs to be created using CGI.
To research for the podrace vehicles, the visual effects crew visited a jet aircraft junkyard outside Phoenix, Arizona and scavenged four Boeing engines. Except for Jake Lloyd inside a hydraulically controlled cockpit and a few practical podracer models, the entire podracing scene—which the effects crew designed to be as "out of this world" as possible—is computer-generated.
Like previous Star Wars films, The Phantom Menace makes several references to historical events and films that George Lucas watched in his youth. The Star Wars films typically mix several concepts from different mythologies together, drawing heavily from the hero's journey , an archetypical template developed by comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell. There are many references to Christianity in the film, such as the appearance of Darth Maul, whose design draws heavily from traditional depictions of the devil , complete with red skin and horns.
However, unlike Jesus , Anakin will eventually fall from grace and seemingly fail to fulfill his destiny until the prophecy comes true in Return of the Jedi. The gothic is most strongly apparent in Darth Maul's demonic horns and the red and black make-up mask that borrows from the facial designs found in depictions of Japanese demons". King and Krzywinska say that "Qui-Gon's pony tail and Obi-Wan's position of apprentice further encourage a reading in terms of the Samurai tradition".
They also say "Amidala, in keeping with her status and character, has a number of highly formal outfits The Jedi practice Zen -like meditation and martial arts , as did the ancient Japanese Samurai warriors. The name "Qui-Gon" adapts the term qigong , which refers to a Chinese discipline involving meditation and cultivation of the flow of the vital energy called " Chi" or "Qi" for healing, health, and combat. The words Ch'i Chinese , gi Korean , ki Japanese , and the Indian term " Prana " all refer to the energy that is thought to flow through all living things, from the source of all chi or power , which is "The Way" or "The Tao " in Chinese philosophy.
In Taoist philosophy, from The Way, yin and yang —the opposing but complementary aspects of reality or nature—are born. Unlike Chinese philosophy, in which yin and yang are not moral qualities, the ancient Persian philosophy of Zurvanism taught that the dualism of dark and light forces are locked in an eternal battle while being two sides or evolutes of the same "Force", the force of time itself Zurvan —the prime mover.
These elements derive primarily from Eastern and Iranian religions and myths. As with other Star Wars films, the themes about family and hope are featured prominently. According to Filoni, Qui-Gon Jinn acts like a father figure towards Anakin because he feels he needs one after taking him from his mother, having realized that the Jedi shouldn't be opposed to love and care. In the end, Qui-Gon dies, and thus Anakin loses his father figure; Obi-Wan Kenobi ultimately becomes his master to honor Jinn's dying wish despite his initial contempt for him, and while he comes to eventually see him like a brother as shown in Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith , he doesn't act like a father, which coupled with the Jedi's indifference, seals Anakin's fate.
Williams decided to use electronic instruments such as synthesizers to enhance the sound and choral pieces to "capture the magical, mystical force that a regular orchestra might not have been able to provide", and create an atmosphere that was "more mysterious and mystical and less military" than those of the original trilogy. The track was made into a music video. The film's soundtrack was released by Sony Classical Records on May 4, This album featured the score, which Williams restructured as a listening experience; it is not presented in film order and omits many notable cues from the film because of the space restriction of the compact disc.
The set features the entire score as it is heard in the film, including all of the edits and loops that were made for the sound mix. The first teaser trailer was released on selected screens accompanying Meet Joe Black on November 13, , and media reported that people were paying full admission at theaters to see the trailer.
Again, many fans paid full theater admission to watch the new trailer. The teaser poster , featuring Anakin with his shadow forming Darth Vader's silhouette, was released on November 10, After Lucas opted for a drawn theatrical poster, Drew Struzan , the artist responsible for the Special Edition posters, was commissioned to illustrate, and the poster was unveiled on March 11, Lucasfilm dictated that, contractually, Struzan's illustration was the only art the foreign distributors could use, and other than the text, it could not be modified in any way.
A novelization was written by Terry Brooks , who met with Lucas before writing the book and received his approval and guidance. It includes some scenes that are not in the film and foreshadows pending developments in the following two installments of the series. A pinball machine was created by WMS Industries.
The release of the first new Star Wars film in 16 years was accompanied by a considerable amount of attention. This was because of a fear that family theater-goers would be either unable to receive tickets or would be forced to pay higher prices for them. Instead, tickets were to be sold on a first-come-first-served basis. Despite worries about the film being finished on time, two weeks before its theatrical release Lucasfilm moved the release date from May 21 to 19, At the ShoWest Convention, Lucas said the change was intended to give the fans a "head start" by allowing them to view it during the week and allowing families to view it during weekends.
The film opened at am on Wednesday, May 19, in 2, theaters in the United States and Canada. An additional theaters screened the film later in the day. The film was released on VHS on April 4, There were two versions of the film, which were a standard pan and scan version and a widescreen Collector's Edition version.
In its first two days of availability, the regular version sold 4. On the first disc, there are three randomized selected menus themed to the planets Naboo , Tatooine and Coruscant. There is an Easter egg located in the options menu. When the THX Optimizer is highlighted, the viewer can press By doing this, some bloopers and DVD credits will be shown. The DVD version was re-released in a prequel trilogy box set on November 4, On September 28, , it was announced that all six films in the series would be stereo-converted to 3D.
These would be re-released in episode order, beginning with The Phantom Menace , which was released to cinemas on February 10, Lucas stated the 3D re-release was "just a conversion" of the film's Blu-ray release and no additional changes were made. General Mills and Brisk were promotional partners in North America for the 3D re-release but promotion was limited.
Lucasfilm also partnered with Variety, the Children's Charity to raise funds for children through the sale of a special edition badge. Following an advance screening on Saturday, May 8, , several newspapers broke an agreement with Fox and published reviews of the film on Sunday, May 9.
The site's critical consensus reads, "Burdened by exposition and populated with stock characters, The Phantom Menace gets the Star Wars prequels off to a bumpy — albeit visually dazzling — start. Many aspects of the scripting and characters were criticized, especially that of Jar Jar Binks, who was regarded by many members of the older fan community as toyetic —a merchandising opportunity rather than a serious character.
Conversely, Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave it three-and-a-half stars out of four and called it "an astonishing achievement in imaginative filmmaking" and said, "Lucas tells a good story. He concluded his review by saying that rather than Star Trek films, filmmakers could "[g]ive me transparent underwater cities and vast hollow senatorial spheres any day". Which isn't to say it's a disappointment: on the contrary, it's awesomely entertaining, provided you accept it on its own terms Like the original film, it's a Boy's Own adventure yarn with a corny but irresistible spiritual subtext.
The effects and production design are stunning, but they always serve the story, not the other way around. He praised the visuals and Liam Neeson's performance, and said that the duel between Darth Maul and the Jedi was "the saga's very best lightsaber battle".
Empire magazine ranked The Phantom Menace on its list of " Greatest Movies of All Time",  while Entertainment Weekly and Comcast included the film on their lists of the worst movie sequels. He also said that the film was "well made and entertaining" and was much better than similar box office fare released around that year, such as The Mummy and The Matrix.
The introduction of midi-chlorians —microscopic organisms that mediate use of the Force—has been regarded as controversial. Film historian Daniel Dinello says, "Anathema to Star Wars fanatics who thought they reduced the Force to a kind of viral infection, midi-chlorians provide a biological interface, the link between physical bodies and spiritual energy.
Caputo writes, "In the 'Gospel according to Lucas', a world is conjured up in which the intractable oppositions that have tormented religious thinkers for centuries are reconciled The gifts that the Jedi masters enjoy have a perfectly plausible scientific basis, even if its ways are mysterious: their bodily cells have a heavier than usual concentration of 'midi-chlorians'.
There has been some controversy over whether several alien characters reflect racial stereotypes. For example, the oafish, slow-witted Jar Jar Binks has long droopy ears reminiscent of dreadlocks and spoke with what many perceived as a Caribbean patois reminiscent of Jamaican Creole. Lucas added that it reflects more the racism of the commenters than it does the movie;  however, animator Rob Coleman said ahead of the film's release that Watto's mannerisms were inspired by footage of Alec Guinness as Fagin in Oliver Twist.
Even though it received mixed reviews, The Phantom Menace was a financial success, breaking many box office records in its debut, and beating out The Mummy by taking number 1. Overall, The Phantom Menace was the second movie to do so. When adjusted for ticket price inflation, it ranked as the 19th-highest-grossing film domestically, making it the fourth Star Wars film to be in the Inflation-Adjusted Top A month after the film's release, "Weird Al" Yankovic released the parody song and music video " The Saga Begins ", in which he interprets the film's plot from Obi-Wan's point of view to the tune of " American Pie "; this was included as a bonus feature on a Star Wars Blu-ray.
Darth Maul's lightsaber-fighting style served as the inspiration for the viral video Star Wars Kid. A sequel, Attack of the Clones , was released in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the first Star Wars film, see Star Wars film. Theatrical release poster by Drew Struzan. Paul Martin Smith Ben Burtt. Lucasfilm Ltd. Release dates. Running time. See also: List of Star Wars filming locations. See also: Star Wars sources and analogues. See also: Cultural impact of Star Wars. British Board of Film Classification.
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Wrede May 3, Scholastic Paperbacks. Interview Outtakes. Thousands of Things. Home Sweet Home. Boys in Paradise. Something Out of Nothing. This is a Creature Film. Prime of the Jedi. The Fall. Assistant Directors. One Day to Go. Three Thousand Anakins. Show More Loading Podrace Victory. Duel Into The Core. Qui-Gon Jinn. Obi-Wan Kenobi.
Anakin Skywalker. Jar Jar Binks. Naboo An idyllic world close to the border of the Outer Rim Territories, Naboo is inhabited by peaceful humans known as the Naboo, and an indigenous species of intelligent amphibians called the Gungans. Coruscant A city-covered planet, Coruscant is the vibrant heart and capital of the galaxy, featuring a diverse mix of citizens and culture. Anakin Skywalker's Podracer Built in secret by the young slave Anakin Skywalker, this shiny blue and silver Podracer was boasted to be the fastest ever to compete in the Boonta Eve Classic.
Battle Droid Rather than use flesh-and-blood warriors, the Separatists prefer mindlessly loyal soldiers that are easily controlled. Behind the Scenes. More Behind the Scenes Peek behind the curtain of the most innovative film franchise of all time with exclusive video documentaries, image galleries and more. Episode I Featurette: Podracing This documentary featurette examines the look of the pods, the pace of the sequence, the dynamics of pod crashes and more, with exclusive interviews and rare behind-the-scenes footage.
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